Tuesday, May 16, 2017

How much Kratom can Kill You?


"In animal models, the toxicity of mitragynine was claimed to
be relatively low. Macko et al. (1972) found no evidence of toxicity,
measured as tremors or convulsions, at doses as high as
920 mg/kg in dogs. However, a more recent study in rats reported
lethal effects of 200 mg/kg total alkaloid extract of M. speciosa (Azizi
et al., 2010). Janchawee et al. (2007) reported lethal effects after an
oral dose of 200 mg mitragynine in rats. In an acute toxicity test,
the LD50 for oral administration of the methanolic and alkaloid
extracts of M. speciosa were 4.90 g/kg and 173.20 mg/kg in mice,
respectively (Reanmongkol et al., 2007). Acute oral administration
of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses of standardized methanolic
144 Z. Hassan et al. / Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37 (2013) 138–151
extract of M. speciosa did not affect spontaneous behaviour, or
food and water consumption in rats. The methanolic extract, however,
led to a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT) and
argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). Nephrotoxicity was seen only at a
1000 mg/kg dose as evidenced by elevated creatinine.Ahistological
examination showed congestion of sinusoids, haemorrhage hepatocytes,
fatty change, centrilobular necrosis and increased number
of Kuppfer cells in the liver. However, an acute treatment with
the methanolic extract did not induce damage in the axons and
dendrites of hippocampal neurons (Harizal et al., 2010)"

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