Sunday, March 21, 2021

Shipment Update

It arrived yesterday. Unfortunately I got burglarized again. I even know who it is but, somehow can't stop him. This is crazy man. Seattle is straight anarchy. I'm looking for a retail space now. So, hopefully we can run it full bore. Please bear with me while I try to figure out what happened and re-secure my home. EDIT: It's out of control, they came in again and bypassed my alarm, deleted the entire history, as well as all of the video footage that was rcorded with motion detection. This makes me think that they're coming in the house, and just making themselves at home. Someone cooked up burgers last night, took a bunch of coffee, frozen dinners, cup o noodle, more toilet paper and toothpaste. the place is trashed. it's crazy. Nobody believes me for some reason. they think i have multiple personaity disorer and im doing it all. I have pics of and video of it all. that i will link incase anyone has any ideas. PS, i found one of the boxes by my back fence, obviously somehitng scared them away. I really need help. They have control of my router and my devices. you'll see in the linked vids and pics. I really am freaked out, and so are all of my neighbors. I hate to think that my selling Kratom has brought addicts to my neighborhood. Sealltel is a high tech place with high tech addicts. if you're down and out it makes sense how it's happening.

Monday, March 15, 2021

New Shipment Arrival Notice: UPDATE

EDIT: Has arrived in SFO and cleared customs. Will be enroute shortly and eta is Friday 3/17


Plane has left Singapore and is in route to SF0 as we speak. It will probably be another day to get through customs, then should be here by the 18th or 19th. 

This was ordered 2 months ago, and is finally here. This is the Supergreen MD supplier, which is a strain that I've carried since 2017. 

UPDATE: Approval for high risk merchant account is currently pending. The main reason we have been married to this site is because every processor uses a different gateway, which requires us to frequently change the website. After about a dozen sites, you start to lose motivation. 

We will have a new permanent site with official payment processor. 

Thursday, March 11, 2021

Cost Benefit Analysis of Kratom

 As a Vendor of something potentially addictive, I constantly have this inner dialogue / debate about whether I am adequately informing people about the dangers of Kratom. I'm perpetually paranoid about getting people addicted because they were ignorant or misinformed. Let's take a look at the potential costs and the potential benefits, so that we can all do our own analysis before making such an important decision. As long as we are making a well informed decision, I am confident that we will make the correct one. 

Understanding the plant is necessary in order to maximize the utility of this plant and avoid some of the pitfalls of addiction/abuse. This is partly why I'm so obsessed with uncovering the science that sometimes gets buried in the hype. There is undoubtedly a ton of misinformation in this industry, along with America in general. It appears to be a current trend for whatever reason. It's obviously incumbent on the individual to decide whether something is believable or not. In my mind, only the principles that can't be backed by evidence or theory should be shared. Anecdotal accounts can't really show more than a possible correlation between variables. But, sometimes that's good enough. it depends on the context. 

 There is an entire subreddit of angry people who say that Kratom ruined their lives and is 20K members deep. The subreddit r/kratom is 100k members. A recent survey showed that 20% of users in the US are addicted, vs 10% indigenously. A distinction should be made between addiction and physical dependency. Dependence is use to a point where it becomes necessary to use to avoid withdrawal or rebound. Addiction is use despite negative consequences, psychological and/or physical. 

How negative do they have to be to count? 

I personally think that if you're stressed about your use, that's enough. Even if you're only slightly stressed, I feel like that is addiction. If, on the other hand, you are not concerned with the fact that you cannot control your use, then I feel like it won't be an issue, unless of course there is some other negative consequence that outweighs the potential (physiological) benefit. So, only when costs outweigh the benefits, will there be negative consequences from it's use as a med: a net effect Just the fact that you are not in full control of your use is not enough to be considered addiction by my definition. This is not the prevailing definition of addiction in the recovery community, however. Dependence of any kind to any substance (not considered medicine) is considered addiction by the self help community (somehow not cigarettes or caffeine though), but not without dissonance. Replacement therapy like with suboxone is considered ok, but for some reason, in many circles, Kratom use is not. The main issue is that the FDA has not approved kratom for anything, not even as a dietary supplement. The entire medical community revolves around the FDA, unfortunately, who is excessively anti-kratom. They are so anti that they have been caught spreading propaganda falsehoods on numerous occasions, diminishing their credibility as a public health agency. So much of the politics has to do with the misunderstandings and the stigmas associated with an incredibly medicinal plant. Just the idea that there are scientists on the other side that want this banned makes me quiver. 

Because of the potency and possible addictive nature of the compound 7ohm, one must use cost benefit analysis when determining whether to use it. Unfortunately, all Opioid medications are going to have tradeoffs. The FDA approves medications that kill people for a reason. This is because the diseases that they treat most certainly will, or have worse consequences. The use of cost benefit analysis is the cornerstone of modern western medicine. Some people will say that the negative side is not negative enough for addiction to be considered a legitimate concern with this as a medication. The main reasons are the clear cut ceiling effect and the lack of beta arrestin. 

Although 7ohm is a G Protein signaled pathway to the MOR, there is addiction potential, tolerance, and respiratory depression at the level a fraction of opiates. Regardless, it needs to be respected as a powerful opioid. Responsible use, whether recreational or medicinal is what will ensure that the plant remains legal. There is a woman arguing that kratom withdrawal is what made here son commit suicide, although there is little evidence. Arguably, there could be deficit of neurotransmitters during rebound, causing instability. It would be hard to tell if that is ultimately what caused it. Being well informed on what it does and how to use it is essential, I feel. So, let's identify what they are, and calculate the probability they will occur. This way we can all make an informed decision on how to use this substance. 

Although it has been used for hundreds of years by indigenous people, it has not been studied extensively by science until just recently. So, while there is historical basis, there is not that much in the way of scholarly studies. These are historically based, or documented by science. 

Costs: 

Addiction (Compuslive Redosing) 

Dependence / Withdrawal Syndrome 

Hepatic Face (Dark Spots, Not reported by Americans) 

Hair Loss/Thinning (Not reported by Asian users) 

GI Irritation (Acidity) 

 Excessive Sweating 

 Constipation 


 Benefits: 

Addiction Treatment (New evidence shows efficacy with cigarette cessation, and alcoholism.)

 Antidepressant effects (Serotonin) 

Anxiolytic (Dopamine) 

 Reduced Stress Response (Reduced Cortisol in Rats) 

Antipsychotic (Showed Improvement in Dissociation, Alzheimer's potential?) 

Stimulating (Adenosine) 

Adrenergic (Addiction) 

Analgesia Muscle Relaxer 

Anti-inflammatory (Mitraphyline) 

Hypothalamus Regulator (Appetite Suppressor) 

Lower Blood Pressure (Raise or Lower) 

Lower Blood Sugar (A1C) 

Antiviral 

Antiparasitic 

Antidiarrhetic 

Diarrhetic (Cost or Benefit) 

High Cholesterol (Not much evidence exists for kratom per se, but anecdotally as opiates in general have a tendency to do this, there is a recent study of 100 kratom users who showed lower cholesterol) 


Please add to the list as you see fit when doing your own analysis. 


Keep in mind, that heart disease is the number one cause of death (650k) in this country, 1 in 10 people have diabetes, there were 70k opioid overdose deaths last year, 95k alcohol related deaths. 10% of worldwide disability claims are from depression. That's a lot of benefit to weigh against costs. I imagine the cost benefit curve is going to be a little different depending on the reason you're using Kratom. 

I would argue that medicinally speaking, overall, the benefits far outweigh the costs. However, it will be different for every individual as the potential cost of addiction will be different based on your personality, along with the potential benefit of why you use it. Only you can calculate what the probability and cost of your getting addicted to anything is. 

Used responsibly, this plant has very little downside, as far as the evidence suggests. It has a built-in, self-regulating function that makes it harder to abuse than a typical psychoactive compound. The danger of compulsive redosing is somewhat diminished because of wobbles. You can only take so much before it shuts down on you. Evidence shows that higher doses (irresponsible use if you will) actually prevent addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal to 7ohm. 

Up until recently, how Kratom works has been a bit of a mystery. However, now, the cost benefit is clear. Kratom is the cure to our global opioid crisis and then some. It could mean a healthier future for the world if used correctly and responsibly. Hopefully, we will go down as the generation who paved the way for this to become ubiquitous in American Culture. 

Be informed. Spread the Word. The future is Kratom. Did this just turn into a pharmaceutical commercial? Your chance to live longer? One could almost argue that you're better off, health wise, being a kratom user (if you're savvy enough to know about it).

Friday, February 26, 2021

How Kratom Works: The one Alkaloid Theory.

 Theory: 

All effects from Leaf come from varying the level of one alkaloid: Mitragynine. So, you should be able to get every effect from every strain simply by adjusting your dosage. Every strain is essentially just a different level of mit, and is ultimately responsible for all of the effects.  

Why do We Think That? 

Some researchers did a study of a handful of "strains" from various vendors and tested them. They found that there was no significant difference in the level of 7ohm across strains. Believing that there was inaccurate sampling because "strains" are actually just blends, I did my own study looking at various strains and drying methods from multiple vendors. 

Here's what I found: 

No significant difference in levels of 7ohm across all drying methods and strains. There was the random strain with higher levels of 7ohm. McCurdy et al. thought that it was adulteration. however, I think that it's safe to say that it's not a legitimate concern in our industry. The only notable difference was in the level of Mitragynine. The other alkaloids don't really have Psychoactive effects, and they are found in such small amounts for it to conceivably make a difference. EDIT: OF COURSE THERE ARE OTHER PHYSIOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF THE OTHER ALKALOIDS, BUT I'M SPECIFICALLY TALKING ABOUT PSYCHOACTIVE EFFECTS HERE. There have been limited studies on the other alkaloids with the exception of the anti-inflammatory Mitraphylline, which is also found in cats claw and has shown much promise in treating cancerous tumors much like CBD. leaf actually also contains a flavenoid called epicatechin also found in tea, which is also effective against cancer. Reds, which are all essentially bentuangie (dried in plastic bags in the sun), simply have low levels presumably from the oxidizing effects of the sun. I found that pure bents had levels as low as .3%. Indoor dried leaf was as high as 2.3%. this would explain why a lot of reds are perceived as "weak". They really are and they don't have this corresponding increase in 7ohm. In fact, you are simply getting an "inferior' product which has less alkaloids. But, just because it has lower levels doesn't mean it has less effects. 

Here's what we used to think: 

1)The sun caused photooxidation to occur inside the plant leaf converting the Mitragynine into 7ohm through the reaction of phytochemicals and sunlight. Why did we think that? the chemical compound 7ohm is reddish in color. oxidation turns leaf red/brown. reds have a different effect (allegedly more opioid). A study showed that the conversion took place easily inside of a petri dish just by exposing the solution to sunlight. 2) Other medicinal plant chems, like cannabinoids, have psychoactive effects which contribute to the entourage effect from synergy of multiple compounds. Why did we think that? Because there seems to be so many different effects from kratom, the logical explanation would be that it's not unlike Cannabis. However, a look at the other alkaloids reveals that it might not be the case with Kratom. 

Here's what we recently discovered through research (Mainly CNS receptor panel from McCurdy et al): 

It validated what we had suspected all along, as this one study measured (quantified) the affinities to which Mitragynine binds to various receptors in a rats brain and either agonizes or inhibits. Mitragynine seems to be single handedly responsible for all of the other psychoactive effects of Kratom minus the opioid effect: 
1) stimulation through adenosine receptore antagonism like caffeine. adenosine causes and regulates sleep. without it, you get anti-sleep aka caffeine buzz. It' s noteworthy that you can only inhibit this recptor so much, ie there's a ceiling on effects just like coffee. You can only have zero adenosine production as the max inhibition. You can't have negative adenosine in the brain. 
2) mood it is sertonergic, ie it causes your brain to release more serotonin. It is an agonist at this receptor. 3) motivation/elation dopaminergic, 
4) adrenergic the a2 receptor agonism is how clonidine works to prevent opiate w/d. unfortunately, it is also a known contributor to erectile dysfunction. interesting to note yohimbine, the chemical cousin of mitragynine (structural similarity), is an antagonist. this adrenergic agonism is presumably why it is so helpful with opioid withdrawal (aside from the obvious mu opioid agonism). Clonidine, a med used for opiate w/d works the same way. 

Very important new finding: 

Mitragynine at high concentrations blocks uptatke and effects of all opioids including heroin and morphine. Mitragynine is also a cyp3a4 inhibitor. So, there appears to be a scientific explanation for 2 clear cut effects of Kratom that trade off depending on dosage: mitragynine 7ohm All strains (varied level of MG) fall somewhere in the middle. Reds have little blocking and reported Wobbles presumably because of it's lower levels. there appears to be this precarious balance between opioid effect and opioid blocking. If you take too much, you are not going to feel the effects of 7ohm. Instead, you will feel wobbles, stim, mood, etc. This phenomenon can be seen in extract, as well as certain "strains'" (presumably indoor dried, which minimized oxidation of Mitragynine causing higher concentrations). 

What this means: 

Dosing is Key There's a sweet spot for every strain. Taking the same dose for every strain and for every effect is a mistake. Strains do not have any specific properties that would vary effects except the concentration of Mitragynine. For more stim, take more. There is a threshold of Mitragynine, where it stops the conversion of 7ohm, and even stops all opioid effects. Lower levels/concentrations (like with reds) seem to allow for more opioid effect all the way up until this threshold is reached. Smaller doses allow for less opioid blocking and more production of said enzyme. 

Here's what I think now: Wobbles are caused by Mitragynine why? 

There are no opioid effects when you have the wobbles. there is a study that calls Mitragynine the great Neuromuscular blockade. they took a leg off a rats cadaver and hooked up an electrode to the phrenic nerve to make the leg twitch. When they gave the leg enough Mitragynine they were able to get it to stop twitching. the idea is that it slows/stops nerve communication to a level where the muscles in your eyes and other parts of your body stop responding. All of the effects seem to be a result of the one alkaloid Mitragynine, which in turn converts to 7ohm from oxidation inside of our bodies specifically from the cytochrome enzyme cyp3a4. So, it's not the leaf that makes a difference, it's us and how much we take. To make things more complicated, the liver has the most of this enzyme and is also responsible for metabolizing drugs from our system. So, as mitragynine is cleared out of our bloodstream, some of it (estimated 6% by recent study) is being converted to 7ohm and being put back into our bloodstream. Then, as this enzyme is used up for the conversion, or inhibited by Mitragynine, it slows the rate at which drugs are removed from the body. This means that drugs will stay inside your system for a longer time, and possibly build. Most opiate potentiators, like grapefruit juice are cyp3a4 inhibitors. St John's wort is an example of an inducer. It makes sense to me that if you want more opioid effect that you would want more of that enzyme. 

There seem to be a lot of different effects from Kratom. So, naturally it's believable that there are different types, or "strains". One would think that it's not unlike the Cannabis Industry where there has been extensive and complex breeding practices and the complex chemical profiles vary by genetic varietal: phenotypes. We know that Indonesians are not growing different strains of the leaf. It's not that they don't exist, but moot since they are not differentiating it. Even if there were different strains, the only chemical that seems to matter is the one. 7ohm is the opioid alkaloid and it's created by our bodies. Researchers have scored it on par with Morphine in it's Mu Opioid value (some as strong as 14 times the value). 

What's the significance of Mu Opioid recpetor? 

We don't know exactly. We do know that it's the same receptor that opiates like morphine and heroin hit and seems to be responsible for the perception of sedation, analgesia, and euphoria. It's interesing to note that mu opioid activity using beta arrestin pathways caused hyperactivity in rats. There appears to be somewhat of a stim effect by inducing mor, similar to inducing serotonin. Also, interesting is the kappa opioid receptor has been linked to hallucinations and other psychedelic effects like Salvia, and Ketamine. Kratom is known to effect delta and mu. Kappa is known to effect dopamine and serotonin. 

BOTTOM LINE: All effects from Kratom are dependent on the dose of this one alkaloid. If you're not feeling the opioid effects, you could be taking too much and blocking it. Why do we think that? Because 7ohm uses G protein instead of Beta arrestin to signal mu opioid receptors, there is much less tolerance, w/d, and side effects. It would take an enormous amount to build tolerance to a point where there is zero effect. At this point, it should be obvious (eye muscle problems, stim, no opioid effect). Then, because you don't feel it, you chalk it up to tolerance and take even more. Leaf is complicated, but in more ways than can be explained by the strain/vein color paradigm. 

Asians don't have problems wtih addiction because 
a) mitragynine is not addicting (rats don't come back for more) 
b) they take larger doses than we do. 

In fact, the main reason they use it is for it's stimulating properties. Chris McCurdy, the leading expert, surmised that addiction, was due to what's considered "inferior" product, or leaf that has lower concentrations of Mitragynine. It is interesting to note that the Thai/malaysians do not have bentuangie (red). Americans, on the other hand are experiencing w/d, addiction, etc...The main reason we take it is for the Opioid effect according to the largest survey in history. So, it may be the case that you need to take less for more opioid effect and more for stim. This indicates that there is probably a sweet spot for every strain and what that is depends on what the concentration of Mitragynine is in the leaf, eg you can take a lot of a red before wobbles. to get more effect, take more up until you start getting the effect blocked, at which point it will be more stim (mitragnine effect). At a particular set dose, you can categorize "strains" as being fast or slow. or, you can just adjust your dosage. Theoretically, it should all have the same effect. 

The 2 faces of Kratom: Mitragynine and 7ohm. These appear to be the main 2 that synergize. Psychostimulant and Opioid. All strains fall somewhere between these 2. 

EDIT: make no mistake about it, kratom has addiction potential despite having this limiting factor. In fact, it happens quite a bit. It def makes it harder to abuse, I think. There's this miraculous, natural regulating effect of Mitragynine that prevents overdose on 7ohm. What a combo, right? I hear a lot of people claim that they stopped using because it stopped having opioid effect on them. According to science, tolerance shouldn't build like it does with opiates. It seems hard to build, personally. I've rarely been constipated. In fact, the evidence suggests that addiction (dependence anyway) may be more likely to occur with moderate use. Let me clarify: I really think it has something to do with the concentration of one dose. one phenomenon that I can't explain is why I can't get 7ohm effects from 45% mit extract. Others claim no effect. I feel the stim, i think. How it feels to me is that when you have the wobbles, it lowers your tolerance to 7ohm while minimizing your opioid w/d from adrenergic agonism. Taking higher concentrations like extract might actually lower your tolerance to 7ohm. 

Who gets 7ohm effects from extract? Anyone? The latest survey of Americans from Johns hopkins found kratom addiction to happen to 1 in 5 users. 20% is no joke. Keep in mind that this is self reported and denial happens to be a telltale symptom of addiction making the results inherently skewed. At some point I think that you can get to a habit of use despite harmful consequences. i know a lot of people that would argue that there are no harmful consequences, ie no side effects, so no such thing as addiction. Or, addiction to the level of say a cup of coffee. But, it's apparent now, that the prevalence of addiction is twice as high as it was in thailand. I have been testing the threshold of withdrawal/dependence on myself and may start another thread to discuss it. My main issue with Kratom dependence is Sleep. I know people who wake from their sleep covered in sweat. The problem is that withdrawal, while not that severe for most, comes pretty quick for all. I'm going off on a tangent here. More on this later.

The applications of use of kratom for the opiate epidemic are huge. Getting people on Kratom will prevent overdose deaths. It's like a natural Naloxone. The question is can it reverse the opioids in your system already, ie can you give it to someone who is overdosing to snap them out of it? I think that if you are a regular user of opiates, you need to know about the existence of kratom.

STRAINS: 
Every blend results in a different mitragynine level and this is what causes the variance in effects. It's essentially this battle that takes place inside of our bodies that determines which effect will be dominant. It seems to be a precarious balance. The method of taking the same amount of every strain is a mistake. I feel like there is a sweet spot for every strain that is determined by this level of mit as well as the enzymatic processes in our body. I still can't get 7ohm effects from extract, no matter the dose. So, there remains a phenomenon unexplainable by out theory. 

eg 
bali is a 50/50 red/green blend. If we start with a 2.1% green leaf, which is what would be expected if it was dried in the shade, and then use a red bentuangie with a .33, we have (2.1+.33)/2= 1.2. What exactly is the best level for 7ohm effect is debatable. I took a poll and people reported anywhere between .8 to 1.8. as the most opioid strain. with all of the testing going on now, we should be able to narrow this down a little more. Of course, there's the variable that we may not know of yet also. 

Friday, January 8, 2021

Buy seven7ohm Kratom

The domain: 7ohm.com doesn't seem to be working for some reason. None of the links show up. It works fine on all of my devices, but others have reported dead links when using 7ohm.com instead of 7ohm.info. I'm not sure what could explain it. 

So, if you came here using 7ohm.com, you have to use 7ohm.info, or  https://www.7ohm.info/p/seven-ohm-botanicals-botanical-specimen.html

I don't know what the cause is, and I have no idea how to solve it. It doesn't make any sense to me. It's technically a domain forwarding process. There's no plausible reason why the links would be missing when it's going to the same site. It's the weirdest thing. 

A note about the grind of leaf coming from Indonesia.

The types of equipment being used are
1) grain grinder (high velocity)
2) flour mill (Super small particle size)

Regular is once through the grain grinder.
Micro is twice.
Nano is through an expensive, dedicated flour mill that they actually call a nanogrinder.

Does it matter? Weighing it is probably going to tell. If you toss and wash, the nano is almost twice the volume. Something that might make a difference if you cap it up also. You'll need considerably more pills to get the same weight of material. Basically, if you don't weigh it, then you're going to have some issues with dosing. Conversely, the older, denser material weighs much more and is like half the volume.

One study was able to extract more alkaloids from material that had a finer grind and was freeze dried. There are some suppliers out there touting that nano is more potent. There was one vendor who did a test to see if there was a diff. She swears by it now. There is some merit to the theory that it would absorb better if it were smaller. There is also evidence that Mitragynine

I ordered some supergreen maeng da from one drying batch. It will come in both regular and nano. I personally don't think that it will make a difference. there is some evidence about particle size in botanical extractions. We will see.

HULU KAPUAS - BORNEO (Nano-Milled, Super Fine Powder)
MEDAN - SUMATRA ISLAND (Higer MG Blends, Micro, Minimal Stem and Vein),
PONTIANAK - WEST BORNEO (Coarse Grind, More Stem and Vein, Complex blends)
KETAPANG - SOUTH BORNEO (Blends are Mitragynine dominant, Micro, Minimal Stem and Vein)
THAILAND / MALAYSIA - BORDER (Mostly pure, basic blends, coarse, lots of stem and vein)

All 2017 Stock except (August 2020):
Plantation Maeng Da (Pontianak)
(Elephant) Super Green Maeng Da (Hulu)(out)
Supergreen (Pontianak) (Out of Stock)
Green Bar Bar (Hulu)(out)
Green Banana (Hulu)(out)
Green Elephant (Pontianak)(Out)
Green Bali (Pontianak)(Out)
White Gucci (Hulu)
White Golden (Hulu)
White Maeng Da (Hulu)(out)
Red Bali (Hulu)(Out)

GREEN (Mostly Blends except Super, which is pure sun dried leaf)
Green Elephant Green Malay EGM - (Hulu Kapuas)*
Green Malay Egm#2
Green Elephant (Thailand)
Green Sumatra (Medan)(100g Packages only)
Green V Ketapang (Ketapang)(100g Packages only)
Green V Borneo (Ketapang)(100g Packages only)
Green Kapuas (Hulu Kapuas)(100g Packages Only)
RED
Red Elephant(Ketapang)      
Red Elephant Maeng Da #7 -(Hulu Kapuas)(Pure)      
Red Elephant Maeng Da #6 (Hulu Kapuas)(Pure)      
Red Bentuangie (green)(Pure) AKA Brown (Fermented)      
Red Bentuangie Ketapang)      
Red Bentuangie (Pontianak)
Red Malay (Pontianak)
Red Bali (Pontianak)
Red Thai (Thailand)
Red V (Ketapang)
Red V II (Ketapang)
Red Horn (Ketapang)
Red Borneo (Ketapang)
Red Jambu 2 (Thailand)
WHITE
White Kapuas (Pontianak)
White Sumatra (Medan)
White Vietnam (Ketapang)
BROWN (Fermented)
Brown Borneo (Pontianak)
Brown (Hulu Kapuas)

Thursday, January 7, 2021

Debunking Kratom Myths: Potentiates

Most Potentiates that people use for Kratom are cyp3a4 inhibitors. The rationale behind this is that since this enzyme metabolizes 65% of known drugs, a lack of it would cause the alkaloids to build in the bloodstream causing a pronounced effect that lasts longer. This dangerous drug interaction with an inhibitor like grapefruit juice is what you are warned about on many prescription drug bottles. 

Recent research has been groundbreaking. We've discovered that the opioid (7ohm) on par with Morphine found in kratom is a metabolite and only found in trace amounts in the leaf. This alkaloid is converted primarily by the same enzyme mentioned above. So, while we were trying to get a greater opioid effect by inhibiting said enzyme, we may have actually been reducing the opioid effect. This would theoretically mean that the effects would be primarily from the alkaloid Mitragynine. Mitragynine is the reason we have stimulation through adenosine receptor antagonism, much like Caffeine. 

So, theroretically, you would get more stim from an inhibitor, and more opioid from an inducer. Try this experiment: take the same amount of the same strain of kratom for a week (or a day) while taking an inhibitor, then try it for a week (or whatever) with an inducer. See if you get different effects. Also theoretical: wobbles should be cured by taking an inducer assuming you believe that wobbles are caused by the "great neuromuscular blockade" effect of Mitagrynine (as cited by one study. 


[b]Inducers (increase cyp3a4)

[/b

]St. John’s wort [14, 15, 16]

Capsaicin [17, 18]

Common valerian [19]

Echinacea purpurea [20]

Vitamin D and UV exposure [6]

Being female [21]

Diabetes [22]

Fatty acids [22]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) found in cigarettes [23]

Aflatoxin B1 [24]

Some drugs such as carbamazepine [10] and dexamethasone [25]


[b]Inhibitors (decrease cyp): 

[/b]

Grapefruit juice (and its compounds bergamottin, naringenin, and paradicin-A) [26, 4, 27]

Starfruit juice [28]

Aloe vera juice [29]

Mixed vegetable juices [30]

Kale [31]

Garden cress [32, 33]

Fennel [34]

Green tea [4, 35]

Black pepper [36, 37]

Herbs

Goldenseal [38]

Raspberry leaf [34]

Milk thistle (compounds silybin and isosilybin) [39]

Good link explaining the enzyme and citing studies: ]https://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/PUArticles/March2014DrugMetabolismCytochromeP4503A4.htm#:~:text=The%20liver%20and%20small%20intestine%20have%20the%20highest%20CYP3A4%20activity.&text=Potent%20inhibitors%20of%20CYP3A4%20include,John's%20Wort%20and%20glucocorticoids

Does Kratom Cause Hair Loss?

 I know people don't like talking much about this possible side effect.The topic may even have been banned at one point on r/kratom. It's possible that addressing it might help ease this paranoia during a time when we're all scarfing down considerable amounts of green sludge. Or, if you weren't paranoid about it before this, you might be after reading this. One of the most fucked up side effects from Kratom that people have discussed is about alopecia (hair loss). Although people have called bullshit on it, people have also posted pictures and documented their ordeal mainly on r/quittingkratom. The good thing is that it seems to grow back once you quit. Nobody can figure out what's going on exactly and what's causing it, but luckily it does seem to grow back once you quit. It just sucks that you have to quit, right? In looking at a bunch of lab tests recently, I noticed an alarming trend among red kratom (not red vein): mold. 

All Red Kratom is essentially bentuangie and virtually all strains have some of it mixed in. They allegedly try to ferment the leaf by putting it in plastic bags and then in then sun until it turns red. Why they do this seems to be nothing more than trying to get a red color. We'll never know because here's a serious disconnect between effect and muslim Indonesian. Please don't say anything about red "vein" kratom because it doesn't exist. Let me clarify: it does exist, but every plant produces it at one point in their life, and there is no scientific evidence that it has a different alkaloid profile. 

Even if there were a different alkaloid profile to be found in different vein color, Indonesian farmers are not differentiating between vein colors when harvesting so it's moot to even consider it as factor. Additionally, recent research says that most of the psychoactive effects are caused by mitragynine, and the other alkaloids (with the exception of mitraphyline) are found in too small of amounts to make a significant impact on effect. Mitraphyiine is a strong anti-inflammatory that has shown promise in treating cancer. All "strains" from Indonesia are blends of red and green kratom. 

Who cares? 

There seems to be an inherent flaw in the way red kratom is made, and this causes it to grow mold. Fermentation isn't really feasible when it comes to kratom as there are no precursors present (sugar, yeast, etc) in a plastic bag filled with leaves and put in the sun. I'm not sure why it is that we think fermentation occurs in this kind of environment. With failed fermentation most likely comes mold growth. How do I know this? I looked at a bunch of lab tests of a bunch of different types of kratom from the same farmer and found that bentuangie is very susceptible to mold. Since it's blended into virtually every strain this could cause problems. Most of the red strains that have this blended in also failed the mold test. Bali, Borneo, etc... I wouldn't be as concerned with toxicity, as I would be with an allergic reaction, especially if you're also asthmatic. Coincidentally, mold allergies can cause hair loss. So, now you have 2 reasons to avoid Bentuangie, especially if it hasn't been lab tested for microbes. For all of those that feel that reds are void of effect, it may be because this drying process severely degrades Mitragynine (some of the levels of Mg were as low as .3%). My assumption is that the longer you leave it in the bag/sun, the more of it is degraded. What we learned from this is that there does appear to be value in reduced levels of Mitragynine. This reduced level of MG could be the reason that reds are perceived to have a more opioid effect. 

To validate our theory we just need to find out if hair loss sufferers were allergic to mold along with which strain and how much they were taking. 

Symptoms of Mold Allergy 

Sneezing

Runny or stuffy nose

Cough and postnasal drip

Itchy eyes, nose and throat

Watery eyes

Dry, scaly skin

Finally, there is something that needs to be said about moderate levels of Mitragynine, which is the most common in consistently popular strains. the average was around 1.5%. Reds averaged .9. Sun dried greens (Supergreen) were 1.4%. High levels of Mitragynine seem to be void of opioid effect possibly because of the inhibition of the cyp3a4 enzyme in our bodies, preventing conversion of 7ohm. But, more on that in another post. 

MOST STIMULATING STRAINS: THE WHITE VEIN FALLACY

A very common myth about Kratom is that "White" vein is what causes the stimulant like effects. We now know that vein color, or strain have no bearing on how Kratom effects are categorized. Let me clarify: different color veins do exist, but there is no evidence of a different alkaloid profile, and Indonesian farmers do not discern between vein colors or strains when harvesting leaf. Hopefully, it's become common knowledge that the variance in effects from Kra8om are not due to genetic differences among varietals. Instead, like Tea, all Kra8om comes from the same one plant. 

So, if genetics doesn't determine the alkaloid profile of Kra8om leaf, what does? (Metabolism) 

It turns out that how it's dried determines the level of oxidation, which in turn determines the levels of Mitragynine. This level of Mitragynine seems to be what single handedly determines the effects of leaf. It seems that when a large amount of Mitragynine is involved like in extract, it is void of any opioid effect. Instead, the effect seems much more stimulating, presumably from Mitragynine and cyp inhibition. Additionally, when this occurs there is often wobbles associated with it. This also happens with some indoor dried leaf (as high as 2.1), which has a high concentration of Mitragynine. MItragynine has been called the great neuromuscular blockade by researchers and is most likely the cause of this eye muscle weakening phenomenon. It is important to know that Mitragynine is also a cyp3a4 inhibitor. 

 However, when the levels are lower, like in sun dried leaf (reds)(about 1.2%), the effects is much more opioid like. This could explain why reds are perceived as having this effect. When reds are dried for a long period of time like they are with bentuangie, the levels drop to levels as low as .3%. Additionally, if you take a poll of any vendors' most popular leaf, it is almost always a moderate level. One of the strongest strains that I've had only tested at 1.6%. So, what seems to be happening is that High levels of MG inhibit the cyp enzyme to a point where this conversion is not happening. There seems to be a threshold level where this happens, meaning that it continues to convert to 7ohm until it reaches this level. So, anything below this, and you continue to get conversion, increasing 7ohm and the opioid effect. 

How do we know that the stim effect comes from Mitragynine? A recent study by Boyer et al. showed the binding affinities of other target central nervous system receptors. This recent study quantitatively demonstrated Mitragynine's affinity to the a2a adenosine receptor, a neuromodulator responsible for facilitating sleep. These receptors" are responsible for the effect of caffeine on wakefulness." The Adenosine antagonism produced by Mitragynine, is not unlike that of coffee. So, it is a safe to assume that Mitragynine might largely be responsible for the stimulant effect of Kra8om, especially given the high level of inhibition of adenosine found in the posted study and lack of a competing theory. It is also interesting to note that this effect has a ceiling, as you can't inhibit this mediator more than 100%, which means zero adenosine production in the brain. You can't have negative adenosine. 

Mitragynine is maximized by minimizing the level of oxidation, and by inhibiting the cyp3a4 enzyme, preventing the conversion into 7ohm. Since MG oxidizes from sun, drying the leaf in a dark room would prevent photooxidation. Therefore, the most stimulating leaf would have to be green leaf dried in the dark. "White vein" in Indonesia is made with 60% indoor green, 30% outdoor red, and 10% stem and vein. It is widely believed by Indonesians that stem and vein is what causes the stimulating effect. Having assayed and sold large amounts of stem and vein myself, this kratomite would beg to differ. I have some if you want to try it. It was believed that photo-oxidaton of Mitragynine inside the leaf converted it into 7ohm. The reason I say it doesn't is because 7ohm levels in 50 lab tests, all showed similar levels averaging around .03%. It is believed by researchers that this amount is too low to cause the Opioid effect. 

The perceived stimulating effects of "White Vein" Kratom appear to be purely placebo effect. Leaf with high MG would inhibit said enzyme and theoretically be less sedating, and conceivably more stimulating. A considerable amount of the Psychoactive effects that comes from Kratom seems to come from MG, while the Opioid effect seems to be from 7ohm. So, why would you mix a red (or stem and vein) in with a green when looking for cognitive alertness? Hence, the belief that "White" Kratom is the most stimulating has no scientific foundation. Instead, an indoor dried (high mitragynine) leaf is most likely the most stimulating. This also disproves the theory that more equals opioid and less equals stim. We've established that more mg, that which crosses the threshold levels, inhibits cyp3a4 and prevents conversion, thereby antagonizing adenosine, and creating a stimulating effect. 

Wednesday, December 30, 2020

Why nobody's adulterating Kratom: A case of simple economics.

The practice of tainting Kratom has not been very successful thus far in history. The only two times that I've been able to find where it's happened, people have died. I'm sure we agree that it's a pretty stupid thing to do. Killing off your customers doesn't make much economic sense. That's why adulterating Kratom doesn't happen, much like how weed never got "laced" anonymously. Let's look at the statement "because a company is financially motivated, they would adulterate Kratom without issue". Here is why nobody's doing that from an economic standpoint: 


1) Cost benefit Analysis Failure: You'd have to make a significant amount of money by selling adulterated Kratom to offset the potential liability that killing someone could be. Potential cost is way higher including fiscal suicide from a lawsuit. Potential benefit is marginal at best, as there is only so much Kratom will fetch.


2) A large market already exists for Kratom in it's natural form. By adulterating your product, you are essentially changing it, which has an entirely different demand curve. There's demand for such a product for sure, but it's not the same market as Kratom. You would essentially be giving the consumer something they don't want through deception. The consumer is most likely going to be pissed when they inevitably figure it out. You'd be better off marketing directly to those who actually want it: those who prefer an extra oomph maybe.


3) You're giving something away for nothing. Free adulterant. There are people who will pay for it. Why not just advertise that your Kratom is "enhanced" and charge more? If a company were rumored to "spike" their Kratom, I bet people would line up. There is a different market for this type of consumer. 


You might argue that Companies kill people for profit all the time. Yeah, they do it when the potential benefit outweighs the potential cost. When a Car company decides whether to recall a car or not, they look at what the cost of the recall would be and compare it to what the cost of the lawsuits from lost life will be. The benefit of savings from the cost of recall have to outweigh the potential cost of life in order for the recall to happen. Does it get more unethical than that? They're willing to let people die over money. But it makes economic sense.  Cost benefit analysis is a fundamental principle of economics, as is maximizing profit at all cost. 


The case of adulterating Kratom has nothing to do with ethics or morality. It's simple economics. A profit motivated company would almost certainly prefer to give their customer what they demand. Cost benefit analysis says a profit seeking person/company would not engage in such deceptive practices. It's the same reason why nobody's "Lacing" your weed. Stop being paranoid (At least you were high when you thought that about weed). Even the AKA released a follow up to their unfounded "Adulterated Kratom Warning". What's stopping people from messing with your Kratom? There is no law to stop them from doing it except the law of economics (Cheezy, I know, Couldn't help self). Who would take on a money losing business venture? Nobody is going to choose to lose money, are they? The probability of success from adulterating Kratom is low, plain and simple. You might be some scumbag willing to do anything for money, but I guarantee you're not going to take on a scam with such a high potential cost, low possible payout, and high probability for failure. 


You might as well rob a bank (Do they even do that anymore?) I can't seem to come up with a profile for what a kratom spiking individual would be like. Anyone? Fetishism? Psych disorder? Just a strong urge to anonymously give away drugs? 


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